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Knee

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?

Find out more in this web based movie.

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the center of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately, it does not heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

Meniscus Tears

A meniscal tear is a tear that occurs in the cartilage of the knee. The meniscus is a small, “C” shaped piece of cartilage in the knee joint. Each knee has two menisci, the medial meniscus on the inner aspect of the knee and the lateral meniscus on the outer aspect of the knee.

Find out more about Meniscus Tears with the following links.

Meniscus Repair

Meniscus is the C-shaped two pieces of cartilage located between thighbone and shin bone that act as shock absorbers and cushion the joints. Meniscus distributes the body weight uniformly across the joint and avoids the pressure on any one part of the joint and development of arthritis.

Find out more about Meniscus Repair with the following links.

Cartilage Disorder

Articular Cartilage is the white tissue lining the end of bones where these bones connect to form joints. Cartilage acts as cushioning material and helps in smooth gliding of bones during movement. An injury to the joint may damage this cartilage which cannot repair on its own.

Find out more about Cartilage Disorder with the following links.

Osteochondral Transfer

Osteochondral Autologous Transfer Surgery (OATS) is a surgical procedure to treat isolated cartilage defects which usually 10 to 20mm in size. The procedure involves transfer of cartilage plugs taken from the non-weight bearing areas of the joint and transferring into the damaged areas of the joint.

Find out more about Osteochondral Transfer with the following links.

Patellar Instability

Patellar (knee cap) instability results from one or more dislocations or partial dislocations (subluxations). Patella is the small piece of bone in front of the knee that slides up and down the femoral groove (groove in the femur bone) during bending and stretching movements.

Find out more about Patellar Instability with the following links.

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis, also known as “jumper’s knee” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

Find out more about Patellar Tendinitis with the following links.

MPFL Reconstruction

Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is a treatment modality for patients with more severe patellar instability. Medial patellofemoral ligament is the major ligament which stabilizes the patella and helps in preventing patellar subluxation or dislocation.

Find out more about MPFL Reconstruction with the following links.

Patellofemoral Syndrome “Runner’s Knee”

Patellofemoral pain syndrome also called runner’s knee refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Patellofemoral pain is seen in number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella that cause pain around the front of the knee. Patellofemoral pain is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players and therefore is the common name, runner’s knee.

Find out more about Patellofemoral Syndrome with the following links.

Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.